**Number**

*Structure and calculation*

What students need to learn:

**N1** order positive and negative integers, decimals and fractions; use the symbols =, ≠, <, >, ≤, ≥

**N2** apply the four operations, including formal written methods, to integers, decimals and simple fractions (proper and improper), and mixed numbers – all both positive and negative; understand and use place value (e.g. when working with very large or very small numbers, and when

calculating with decimals)

**N3** recognise and use relationships between operations, including inverse operations (e.g. cancellation to simplify calculations and expressions); use conventional notation for priority of operations, including brackets, powers, roots and reciprocals

**N4** use the concepts and vocabulary of prime numbers, factors (divisors), multiples, common factors, common multiples, highest common factor,

lowest common multiple, prime factorisation, including using product notation and the unique factorisation theorem

**N5** apply systematic listing strategies, including use of the product rule for counting (i.e. if there are m ways of doing one task and for each of

these, there are n ways of doing another task, then the total number of ways the two tasks can be done is m × n ways)

**N6** use positive integer powers and associated real roots (square, cube and higher), recognise powers of 2, 3, 4, 5; estimate powers and roots of

any given positive number

**N7** calculate with roots, and with integer and fractional indices

**N8** calculate exactly with fractions, surds and multiples of π; simplify surd expressions involving squares (e.g. √12 = √(4 × 3) = √4 × √3 = 2√3) and rationalise denominators

**N9** calculate with and interpret standard form A × 10n, where 1 ≤ A < 10 and n is an integer

*Fractions, decimals and percentages*

What students need to learn:

**N10** work interchangeably with terminating decimals and their corresponding fractions (as 3.5 and 7/2 or 0.375 or 3/8); change recurring decimals into their corresponding fractions and vice versa

**N11** identify and work with fractions in ratio problems

**N12** interpret fractions and percentages as operators

*Measures and accuracy*

What students need to learn:

**N13** use standard units of mass, length, time, money and other measures (including standard compound measures) using decimal quantities where appropriate

**N14** estimate answers; check calculations using approximation and estimation, including answers obtained using technology

**N15** round numbers and measures to an appropriate degree of accuracy (e.g. to a specified number of decimal places or significant figures); use

inequality notation to specify simple error intervals due to truncation or rounding

**N16** apply and interpret limits of accuracy, including upper and lower bounds

To see the split between Higher and Foundation please see the full specification Edexcel GCSE 2015 Specification